A. V. Hrska cs facebook

Alexandr Vladimír Hrska (1890-1954)

academical painter, scenograph, graphic artist

Reflections



Machoňova pasáž

Lidové noviny, 13. 04. 2013

Cenná stavba je dílem významného českého projektanta Ladislava Machoně, od jehož narození uplyne 28. dubna 125 let (40. výročí jeho smrti si pak připomeneme na sklonku roku). O Machoňově rozsáhlém pražském díle jsem v této rubrice psal nedávno (Relax LN 9. března), u příležitosti obnovení cenné pasáže se dnes dostáváme k jeho významným pardubickým realizacím. Z tohoto východočeského města pocházela Machoňova matka, architekt se rád do Pardubic vracel a je tu také pohřben.

Rozlehlé a členité budovy Ředitelství pošt a telegrafů a Státní reálky – obě dokončené v polovině dvacátých let v samém srdci města na Smetanově náměstí a v Jahnově ulici – nesou znaky tvorby zakladatele české moderní architektury Jana Kotěry, jehož studio Machoň několik let vedl. Patrný je i vliv tehdejší holandské architektury a rovněž – zejména v interiérech–motivy tehdy velmi populárního stylu art deco.

Na průčelí se střídají omítnuté pásy s plochami z režného zdiva, výrazná jsou orámování oken, monumentálně jsou řešeny vstupy. Kvalitními materiály, zejména žulou a mramorem, se v interiérech rozlehlých paláců nešetřilo. Vestibul Ředitelství pošt zdobí kamenné plastiky zubrů od Jaroslava Horejce, atiku školy zase socha chlapce od Karla Pokorného. První stavbu dnes využívá magistrát a krajský úřad a prošla rozsáhlou rekonstrukcí, škola na ni teprve čeká.

Ve třicátých letech se pak v centru Pardubic objevily další velké stavby Ladislava Machoně, tentokrát již v konstruktivistickém stylu. Poštovní úřad na dnešní třídě Míru nese podobné motivy jako Machoňova pošta v Praze-Holešovicích – pravidelný rastr čtvercových oken na průčelí a keramikou obložený sokl. Jen původní bílou vápennou omítku bohužel nahradil šedivý břízolit. V roce 1937 pak byla v ulici Na Třísle dokončena stavba Okresního soudu a berních úřadů (dnes tu sídlí také chemická průmyslovka), opět s motivem keramických obkladů části fasád. Také tento dům by měl být rekonstruován do původní podoby. Obnovena byla i populární Hofmannova kavárna Vraťme se ale k paláci Passage. Stavba podle Machoňova návrhu probíhala v letech 1923 až 1925. Na průčelí využil architekt hezkého motivu keramických orámování řady oken, což je prvek, jenž se vyskytuje na renesančních pardubických domech. Fasádu zdobí také pískovcové figurální plastiky Karla Dvořáka ve stylu civilismu. Jinak je průčelí celkem jednoduché a působí mnohem klidněji než třeba fasády pardubického krematoria od Pavla Janáka ze stejné doby.

Pasáž v hnědo-žluto-bílém barevném pojednání je zakryta z velké části prosklenou valenou klenbou. V lunetách na obou koncích byly původně fresky akademického malíře Alexandra Vladimíra Hrsky (1890–1954), které poněkud přísný prostor svou pestrou barevností i rozvernou sportovní tématikou příjemně doplňovaly. Ty se nedochovaly, ale bylo by výborné, kdyby se podařilo zhotovit jejich kopie. Mimochodem, Hrskovi navrhl na pražské Babě architekt Machoň těsně před válkou malý domek, nedávno kvalitně opravený.

Na obou stranách pasáže jsou obchody s velmi pěknými detaily původních výkladců a dveří. Nádherná je mozaiková dlažba a obnoveny byly také konzolové lampy na stěnách. Kompletní rekonstrukcí prošla i obě dvorní křídla domu, svírající pasáž. I tady se ovšem zachovaly některé původní detaily, třeba schodišťová zábradlí. Konečně byl obnoven i původní vzhled zadního průčelí domu. Autorem projektu rekonstrukce byl architekt Miroslav Petráň.

V době slavnostního otevření už fungovaly některé obchody a obnovena byla i kdysi populární Hofmannova kavárna. K rekonstrukci vydalo nakladatelství Helios publikaci seznamující s historií paláce Passage i osobností a dílem Ladislava Machoně. Knížku doprovázejí plány, dobové fotografie i současné snímky Štěpána Bartoše.

Dobrá věc se tedy podařila. Při občasných návštěvách Pardubic jsem sledoval stav pasáže a pohled na zdevastovaný prostor byl tristní. Kéž by Pardubičtí věnovali stejnou péči i Winternitzovým mlýnům – jednomu z nejvíce fascinujících děl Josefa Gočára. Ty už neslouží původnímu účelu, a tak by bylo skvělé najít pro tuto nádhernou stavbu smysluplnou funkci.

***

Při návštěvách Pardubic jsem sledoval stav pasáže a pohled na zdevastovaný prostor byl tristní. Kéž by Pardubičtí věnovali stejnou péči i Winternitzovým mlýnům – jednomu z nejvíce fascinujících děl Josefa Gočára.

ZDENĚK LUKEŠ, historik architektury

 

Review of the exhibition at the Gallery "U bileho zajice" in year 2000

Prague, September 5 - September 30, 2000

From the press

From the press
You can also download the review as PDF.

 

A. V. Hrska: Lída Theimerová, 1919

Colored lithography

From the press

From the press
It was not easy for Prague after the war. The market economy was very hard. The cultural live was very dark, the cabarets, small scenes, restaurants and hotel halls were the main cultural center. The heart seven existed also before war and the people started to know about her because of the funny parodies. After war the cabaret began to play in Hotel Central in Hybernsky street. The soul improvised artist was Jiri Cerny, an intelligent comic with an face that he kept always serious. Also Prague expected its first important 'Chansonier', the cabaret star Lida Pirke-Theimerova. The poster of Hrska shows her temperament, her expressive look connecting the voice with the moving of her hands. The form of lithography remembers the restricted choices and the missing money. But more important is the temperament and the working skill which runs a young republic more further. The cabaret has to change the old types to newer, more modern ones. Most sensitive is the pressure of expressionism, which also involved the Heart seven. In the 20th years Hrska was a very popular newspaper reporter and a caricaturist, as a artist he worked with the National theater and the Vinohradsky theater together. At the time when the Heart seven started there was built a new generation, the Devetsil. Josef Kroutvor

 

A. V. Hrska : 'A human being in a cage', 1925

Colored lithography, Theater papers 6/96

From the press

From the press
People know Hrska from the Theater papers from The heart seven and from the Vinohradsky and National theater. He worked also for other scenes - at the beginning of the Twenties in the National theater in Brno, in Prague for example for the Vlasta Burian Theater, which he knew from the time of the Heart seven. Burian opened his theater in Adria at Venclslav square in September 1925, the second play was 'The pimp of the girls' from Kisch and finally the fourth play 'A human being in a cage'. Burian was the main actor in the play 'The monkey', this should be the Frankenstein monster which is holding the nice lady in the dress. The city in the back and the main figures in the front, and very poison colors, that all is an expressionism mess. Petr Stembera

 

A. V. HRSKA: 'The blue bird'

Colored lithography, theater poster Theater newspapers, 6/94

From the press

From the press
Hrska got into the history of the theater poster with the portrait of Lida Theimerova on the poster of the Heart seven. His later poster work is not so unconventional any more but the quality is still one of the best. Hrska worked as an artist at the National- and Vinohradsky theater for which he suggested posters. The floating of expressionism is soon pushed down, there are mostly straight lines, colors and forms. Hrska was also a good painter, the best in paperpainting. Such people as Hrska got the graphic arts at the tops at the twenties and thirties. Josef Kroutvor

 

The painting as a 'theater'

The whole work from A. V. Hrsky from its best, the graphic and technic, everything is connecting with itself. Because A. V. Hrska loved scenographic art and not very long afterwards he put intensive illustrating activity to it and because of that from all of his art periods his ideas and steps are seen in his work, his illustrations, his suggestions for scenes and costumes and his graphic. From the nowadays view we cannot exactly say which of the artists idea was the first and which he had in his later work.

From the press

From the press
It is very difficult to say the exactly order of the work of A. V. Hrska because a lot of his work was damaged, destroyed or hidden somewhere in his own galleries. If we do not count his first work, we can find the first pieces in the Graphic gallery of prof. Max Svabinsky where Hrska was one of the first students. He was working under the name Iro Hrska. If we do not mind all of the the quality of the teaching of Svabinsky, we can see two main facts which every single student of Svabinsky has. A big importance in painting and a perfect graphic technic. In his lithography and in his paintings was Hrska mostly interested in life in towns, free time {circus, games} and different types of people but always without being critical. His early life in Prague is Hrska also putting down in his pieces. Later on he is always more interested in the area of a town than in a country.

In that black white time, in which Hrska built a few lithographys in his most liked technic, he suddenlly changed and started to paint in color.it seems that this change was because of his stay in Paris in 1914. But it seems that Hrska found french paintings befor his trip to Paris, but only in unfinished pieces and galleries in Prague.A.W Hraka changes very quick difficult painting views, he is making experiments with colors and straight lines. After the year 1915 a figure is becoming the main topic mostly a woman and a group of figures. He starts working with bookshops that forbid him illustrations, passports and cultural invitations. He starts working very close together with the Vinohrady theater that offers him a regular salary. He lives very cultural and the young artist is inspired by many things but also from the commercial pressures. His free pieces of that time are showing different understanding of a woman, a woman as an erotic object. The woman is seen in many other forms, Hrska liked the paintings of dancing women in different positions or even in theater dresses. Hrska keeps on doing experiments with colors. Because of the effect of the contrast he is mostly working with one colored contrast. His most favourit color is greyblue.

Like most artists born at the end of the19th century he had to go trough the time of socialism and neoclassicism. In the first half of the twenties he made a few neoclassicism paintings. He used for them strong colored contrast and most of the paintings are from the theater scenes. It is a pitty that Hrska was not satisfied with the result and he kept on searching for new methods. The neoclassicism was later on shown in a few compositions from the thirties. From the end of the twenties he was more and more interested in portretes. Mostly women and actors. As models he took actors and friends.

In the middle of the Thirties there is a change in his creation. At first because he has chosen a new 'genre area' and second because he left for a few years the pastel drawing and started to do light acryll paintings with a colored composition. Both seems to be perfect for his new 'genre' - still life. Because of his garden with a lot of flowers where he moved at the end of the thirties he had a lot of still live. A. V. Hrska enjoyed his life at that time very much and this is shown at his creations. In 1942 he got his first own exhibition, the only one in his life. The exhibitions after his death had shown only a small part of his whole creation, otherwise the fifties were not a good time to connect artists with art of that time.

David Chaloupka
(written for a catalogue for exhibition at the Gallery "U bileho zajice" in year 2000)